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An Overview of Abdominal Pain and the Types of Abdominal Pain in 2019

An Overview of Abdominal Pain and the Types of Abdominal Pain in 2019
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An Overview of Abdominal Pain and the Types of Abdominal Pain in 2019

We can hardly find a person who has not suffered abdominal pain at least once in their life.  Basically, Abdominal pain can be of different types. That caused by a variety of causes. Ranging from simple diseases to life-threatening diseases. Regardless of cause and severity and. This poses a problem for patients and. Who needs to see a doctor.

Abdomen:

It is the part of the body located between the thorax and the pelvis. Which is if separated from the thorax by a diaphragm and. Then the true pelvis by an imaginary plane. Previously, if the anterior abdominal wall supports it then. The spine and back muscles. Skin, superficial fascia and deep fascia. Muscles, layers of fascia (transverse fascia) and extraperitoneal connective tissue and. The outer layer of the peritoneum of the anterior abdominal wall.

The abdominal cavity extends into the concavity of the diaphragm. And descends into the pelvic cavity. Since whether the ribs overlap at the top of. The pelvic bones at the bottom. The exact size of the abdominal cavity is masked.

Importance of Abdomen:

Although the abdomen contains digestive organs. Such as the stomach, small intestine, large intestine and liver. Gallbladder, pancreas, and genitourinary organs. Such as kidneys, ureters and bladder, and fallopian. Tubes, ovaries, and blood vessels. It also contains organs. Such as the spleen, adrenal glands and mesenteric lymph nodes. Blood vessels and lymphatic vessels and so on. The ligaments formed. However by the peritoneal tissue adhere. To these organs and hold them in position.

Peritoneum:

This is a large serous membrane lining the abdominal cavity and. It has two layers. While the outer layer is called parietal peritoneum. And covers the inner surface of the abdominal wall. Although the inner layer is called the visceral peritoneum. Which covers the organs and. Limits their mobility.

These two layers of the peritoneum are connected by an omentum and. A mesentery through. Which the organs obtain the blood supply and the feeding of the nerves and. The cavity formed by the two layers of the peritoneum is a potential space. That called the peritoneal cavity. Which is moistened with serous fluid. However To avoid friction of the abdominal contents?

Types of abdominal pain:

Depending on the origin. There may be different types of abdominal pain.

  1. Visceral pain (splanchnic pain):

    It is caused by the stimulation of the visceral nerves by a harmful agent. Which may be a living organism, toxins, and mechanical stimuli. Such as stretching, excessive muscular contraction or ischemia. However visceral pain is dull by nature. Poorly located and in the midline.

  2. Pain on the wall:

Basically. It is also called somatic pain. While Some harmful agents stimulate the parietal peritoneum. Or by causing acute and localized pains. Although this type of pain is worse because of the movements.

3. Referred pain:

Here, the pain, which comes from other sources. Is felt in the abdomen. By the feeding of the common nerves. Example: if conditions such as pleuritis, pericarditis and torsion tests, etc. Although then they cause pain in the abdominal area. Due to the presence of nerves with the same value as the root (segments of the spine).

It has already been mentioned. That another abdominal pain has died for the affected person. And their family members. Regardless of their cause and severity. However, the intensity of the pain may not always indicate the severity of the condition. Severe pain may be due to mild conditions. Such as both indigestion and flatulence. While mild pain may occur or in such situations.

Modes of presentation of abdominal pain:

1. Acute abdominal pain:

here the pain is sudden. With a rapid onset and a short course. Which may be due to serious or minor injuries. The term “acute abdomen” is used in conditions. In which the patient complains of acute abdominal symptoms. That suggests a life-threatening illness. That may or may not require urgent surgery. While Acute pain or may be of a colonic nature or not.

2. Chronic abdominal pain:

While the pain is persistent and recurrent or is characterized by long-suffering. However, the complaints persist for a long time with fluctuations in the intensity of the symptoms.

3. Sub-acute abdominal pain:

As its name suggests. Although the duration of pain varies between acute. And chronic conditions.

4. Acute exacerbation:

In this state.  Basically, a person with chronic symptoms is manifested. By the sudden onset of symptoms. However that simulates an acute condition. In such cases. Although if the patient or witnesses present. Then the history of chronic suffering.

Causes of abdominal pain:

The etiology of abdominal pain can be discussed under the following headings.

1. Pain caused by abdominal injury:

Example: gastritis, duodenitis, appendicitis, peritonitis, and pancreatitis. Intestinal obstruction, renal colic, and cholecystitis. Obstructed gallstones, peptic ulcer, and intestinal perforation and non-ulcer dyspepsia. Food allergy, hepatitis and liver. Hepatitis and mesenteric lymphadenitis. And inflammatory bowel diseases (ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease) and dysentery. Cancer of the gastrointestinal tract (GIST), abdominal tuberculosis. Abdominal migraine, and acute regional ileitis etc.

2. Pain related to metabolic and general problems:

Example: intoxication, kidney failure, diabetes and thyroid problems. Hyperparathyroidism, porphyria, medication and lead colic. Black widow spider bite and blood diseases. Malaria, leukemia, nodular and periarteritis. Hereditary angioedema, hereditary angioedema, and cystic fibrosis.

3. Pain due to lesions located outside the abdomen (referred pains and neuralgic pains):

Whether pain is evoked here or by other sites due to common in nominations. Example: pneumonia, myocardial infarction, subacute bacterial endocarditis and torsion test etc. The pain resulting from certain neurogenic lesions is also included in this category. Example: shingles, spinal nerve pain and dorsal tabs. However a column for tuberculosis and abdominal epilepsy etc.

4. Functional pain:

pain does not cause injuries. But mainly due to certain psychological causes. Example: panic disorder, school stress and somatization disorder. Although the history of sexual abuse and irritable bowel syndrome.

5. Pain associated with urinary tract injury:

Either injury of the upper or lower urinary tract causes abdominal pain. Example: urinary tract infection, cystitis, pyelonephritis and urinary retention. Renal colic and ureteral colic.

6. Pain related to gynecological and obstetric problems:

Although the gynecological organs are found in the pelvis most lesions are manifested. By low abdominal pain. Examples: menstrual colic, broken ectopic pregnancy and acute salpingitis. Endometriosis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease and polyp’s torsion. Pelvic abscess, pain related to UICD and puerperal infection.

7. Causes in children:

In children, some common causes should be mentioned. Examples: baby colic, lactose intolerance and milk allergy. Although intussusception, volvulus, testicular torsion, accidental ingestion and streptococcal throat infection. Congenital megacolon, food excess, food allergy and aerophagia.

8. Non-specific abdominal pain:

No immediate cause is found here. Even after taking antecedents and investigations.

In approximately 35-40% of cases of abdominal pain. The causes may not be easily identified and. Therefore, treated symptomatically. However, if the pain persists with the appearance of other signs. And symptoms then indicates the underlying cause. Although it should be identified. As soon as possible to properly manage the case.

A provisional diagnosis of the disease:

Here, the probable condition that causes abdominal pain. It is diagnosed taking into account clinical history. Signs and symptoms as well as other clinical findings.

Laboratory investigations:

This includes whether several diagnostic procedures. Or that can help in the final diagnosis of the disease.  However the choice of research depends on both signs. And symptoms that indicate a probable condition. Good research helps to make a final diagnosis.

Example: routine blood, routine urine, blood biochemistry and stool examination. X-rays, barium X-ray ultrasound, GIT endoscopy and computed tomography. Magnetic resonance, gastric acid secretion studies, laparoscopy and mucosal biopsy. ECG, excretory urography and nephropathy. VIP and exploratory laparotomy etc. These are useful surveys.

The final diagnosis of the disease:

After performing the necessary investigations. The disease abdominal pain is diagnosed. By correlation with the clinical outcome. And the patient’s medical history. In the case of a diagnostic problem. Although a team of doctors is involved in diagnosis and management.

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